Images Terminology: A Glossary of 69 Important Photographic Phrases

The submit Photography Terminology: A Glossary of 69 Essential Photographic Terms appeared first on Digital Photography School. It was authored by Darlene Hildebrandt.

photography terminology: a glossary of 69 terms

Are you overwhelmed or confused by pictures terminology? Do you wish to communicate “photographer” like the professionals?

That’s what this text is all about.

I’ll go over a number of the most typical technical pictures phrases in addition to some much less widespread slang and photographer jargon. By the tip, I promise you should have a greater grasp of the language. You’ll even have the ability to have a dialog with a seasoned professional and maintain your individual!

Let’s get began.

Primary pictures phrases

These are the pictures phrases you’ll discover in your digicam’s guide and in most newbie tutorials:

  • Aperture – The variable opening within the lens by which mild passes to the movie or digital sensor. Aperture is measured in f-stops. I like to match it to your pupil, which opens and closes to permit kind of mild into your eye relying on the brightness degree of the room.
  • Bracketing – Taking a collection of pictures at completely different exposures. You might even see a setting in your digicam that claims AEB (auto publicity bracketing). Bracketing is usually used when creating HDR pictures or in troublesome lighting conditions the place chances are you’ll wish to have a variety of exposures from mild to darkish.
  • Bulb – the “B” setting in your digicam the place the shutter stays open for so long as the button or cable launch (distant set off) is pressed.
  • DSLR – A digital single-lens reflex digicam. Any digital digicam with interchangeable lenses the place the picture is seen utilizing a mirror and prism and the picture is taken immediately by the lens. What you see in your viewfinder is what the lens sees.
  • EV – Publicity worth; this can be a quantity that represents the assorted completely different mixtures of aperture and shutter pace that may create the identical publicity impact.
  • Exposure compensation – Modifying the shutter pace or aperture from the digicam’s beneficial publicity to create a sure impact or right for publicity issues. Your digicam reads mild bouncing off your topic and is designed to show for medium grey. So when photographing a topic that’s lighter or darker than 18% grey, you should use this setting to inform the digicam the right publicity (by dialing in – or + publicity compensation).
  • Exposure – The whole quantity of sunshine reaching the digital sensor. It’s decided by the aperture, shutter pace, and ISO.
  • F-stop – A measure of the aperture opening within the lens outlined by dividing the focal size of the lens by the aperture diameter. The sequence of f-stops options multiples of the sq. root of two (1.4): 1, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, and so on. Although these numbers are fairly cryptic, be certain that to do not forget that every step is double the quantity of sunshine. Know that, and also you’ve gained half the battle.
  • ISO – Represents the sensitivity of your digicam’s digital sensor to mild. The decrease the quantity (ISO 100), the much less delicate to mild; the upper the quantity (ISO 3200), the extra delicate to mild. A better ISO permits you to shoot in low-light situations.
  • Shutter speed – The period of time the shutter is open throughout an publicity. The shutter pace controls the looks of movement. Use a quick shutter pace (reminiscent of 1/2000s) to freeze movement or a gradual shutter pace (reminiscent of 1/30s or longer) to blur shifting objects.
  • Zoom lens – Any lens that has a variable focal size, reminiscent of a 24-70mm or an 18-55mm lens. You usually zoom in or out by rotating the barrel of the lens.
  • Prime or fixed lens – Any lens that doesn’t zoom and includes a set focal size, reminiscent of a nifty 50mm lens.
  • Distant set off or digital cable launch – A tool that enables the digicam to be fired with out urgent the shutter button or touching the digicam. Helps get rid of digicam motion throughout lengthy exposures.
  • Macro lens – A lens that focuses very near a topic, so you may seize extremely detailed, magnified pictures.
  • “Regular” lens – Typically a 50mm lens (on a full-frame digicam). This lens intently parallels what the human eye sees. When you’ve got a crop-sensor digicam, a “regular” lens will probably be nearer to 35mm.
  • Telephoto lens – Provides a tighter discipline of view than a traditional lens (i.e., it takes extra magnified pictures). Typically from round 70mm to 300mm. A brilliant-telephoto lens is often 300mm or longer.
  • Large-angle lens – A lens that includes a wider discipline of view than a traditional lens. Typically spans from over 10mm to below 50mm. Relying on the focal size, there can also be edge distortion (i.e., in tremendous wide-angle lenses).
  • Tilt-shift lens – A special-effect lens. Permits for realignment of the airplane of focus (tilt). Permits for adjusting the location of the topic inside the body with out angling the digicam, thus holding parallel traces from converging (shift). A preferred lens for architectural and panorama photographers and is turning into extra broadly utilized by portrait photographers to create a novel, stylized look.
  • Camera resolution – The size your digicam’s sensor is able to capturing, expressed in megapixels. This isn’t the one think about picture high quality, however the higher the decision, the bigger the prints you may produce with out important lack of high quality (usually talking).
  • JPEG vs RAW – Two completely different picture file varieties. Most cameras have the power to shoot in JPEG and RAW. Should you select JPEG, the digicam will shoot a RAW file, course of it utilizing the image fashion you’ve chosen in your menu, put it aside as a JPEG, and discard the RAW model. Should you select RAW, the ensuing file will probably be bigger, carry extra data, and require software program to course of. It offers you – the photographer – extra management over the ultimate look of the picture.
  • Full-frame vs crop/APS-C sensor – A full-frame sensor is roughly the scale of 35mm movie. Most lenses create a circle of sunshine simply giant sufficient to cowl the 35mm sensor space. However in a crop-sensor digicam, the bodily measurement of the sensor is smaller; it solely captures a portion of the complete picture the lens is projecting, successfully cropping out a part of the shot. Widespread crop elements are 1.5x and 1.6x, so if you happen to use a 50mm lens on an APS-C digicam, it provides a 75mm focal size equal.
  • Camera modes – There are 4 commonplace digicam modes. Auto mode selects settings with out consumer enter. Handbook mode permits the consumer to manage the ISO, shutter pace, and aperture. Shutter Precedence mode permits the consumer to pick the ISO and shutter pace whereas the digicam selects the aperture. Aperture Priority mode permits the consumer to pick the ISO and aperture whereas the digicam picks the shutter pace. Program mode permits the consumer to pick the ISO whereas the digicam picks the aperture and shutter pace.

Lighting and portrait pictures phrases

  • Ambient mild – Additionally known as accessible mild. Ambient mild happens within the scene with out including any flash or mild modifiers. It may be daylight, or it may be synthetic mild reminiscent of tungsten or fluorescent bulbs.
  • Principal mild or key mild – The principle mild supply for {a photograph}. It may very well be the solar, a studio strobe, a flash, a reflector, or one thing else. It’s the supply that produces the sample of sunshine on the topic with probably the most depth.
  • Fill light – The sunshine supply that’s secondary to the important thing mild. Used to “fill” within the shadows. Might be produced with a flash, a reflector, or a studio strobe.
  • Lighting pattern – The way in which the sunshine falls on the topic’s face (e.g., at a 45-degree angle).
  • Lighting ratio – A comparability between the depth (brightness) of the primary mild and the fill mild. In different phrases: the distinction between the lit and shadow sides of the topic’s face.
  • Incident mild meter – A handheld system that measures the quantity of sunshine falling on a topic. An incident meter isn’t fooled by the brightness vary of the topic, whereas in-camera reflective meters could be fooled (leading to overexposure and underexposure).
  • Speedlight – A small, moveable flash that may connect to your digicam’s scorching shoe or stand by itself when activated remotely.
  • Reflector – A tool used to mirror mild (usually again towards the topic). It may be a specialised, factory-made reflector (I like to recommend getting a 5-in-1), or a chunk of white cardboard.
  • Gentle meter – A tool that measures the quantity of sunshine in a scene. Just about all trendy cameras supply a built-in mild meter, although it makes use of reflective readings (see the entry on incident mild meters, above).
  • Distant flash set off – A tool used to fireside speedlights off-camera.
  • Subtractive lighting – Taking away mild to create a darker look. It usually includes holding a reflector or an opaque panel over the topic’s head to dam mild from above and open up deep eye shadows brought on by overhead lighting. It could actually additionally contain holding a black reflector reverse your principal mild to create a deeper shadow (i.e., primarily reflecting black onto the topic as a substitute of sunshine.)
  • Hard light – Harsh or non-diffused mild reminiscent of that produced by vivid daylight, a small speedlight, or an on-camera flash. Creates harsh shadows with well-defined edges, distinction, and texture (if used at an angle to the topic). Emphasizes texture, traces, and wrinkles. Typically used to create a extra dramatic kind of portrait.
  • Soft light – Subtle mild, reminiscent of that from an overcast sky, north-facing window with no direct mild, or a big studio softbox. Any such mild produces gentle shadows with gentle edges, decrease distinction, and fewer texture. Gentle mild is mostly most popular by most wedding ceremony and portrait photographers as a result of it flatters the topic.
  • Edge switch – How rapidly shadow edges go from darkish to mild. With harsh mild, the sting switch could be very outlined and sudden (virtually a transparent line). With gentle lighting, the sting switch is rather more refined – virtually imperceptible – because it progressively adjustments from darkish to mild.
  • Flash sync – The synchronization of the firing of an digital flash and the shutter pace. That you must know what shutter pace your digicam syncs at; in any other case, if you happen to use a too-fast shutter pace, chances are you’ll get {a partially} illuminated picture. For many cameras, the sync pace is round 1/200s.

Slang and pictures jargon

Listed here are a number of different pictures phrases which might be a bit extra superior (together with some wacky jargon and slang!). Change into aware of this terminology so you may discuss to execs with confidence.

  • Quick glass – Refers to a lens with a really giant most aperture (reminiscent of f/1.8 or f/1.2). The lens is “quick” as a result of it permits you to shoot with a quick shutter pace.
  • Chimping – Slang time period for trying in the back of your digicam after each picture. Has a detrimental connotation; if you happen to chimp, you’re spending an excessive amount of time reviewing pictures on the digicam and never sufficient time capturing.
  • Bokeh – The out-of-focus blurred bits in a picture background. Most frequently bokeh happens when small mild sources are within the background.
  • Depth of field (DOF or DoF) – The gap between the closest and farthest objects in your scene that seem in focus. Managed by many elements, together with the aperture, lens focal size, and distance to the topic.
  • Hyperfocal distance – The main focus distance offering the utmost depth of discipline for a specific aperture and focal size. Older prime lenses usually have hyperfocal distance marks to help find this depth-of-field candy spot. With at this time’s lenses, it’s doable to calculate the hyperfocal distance, however it takes a bit extra work and a hyperfocal distance calculator.
  • Gobo – One thing used to dam undesirable or stray mild from falling onto the topic. Typically the darkish aspect of a reflector is used as a gobo.
  • Scrim – A translucent system used to diffuse and soften the sunshine. Generally is a reflector with a translucent panel. Scrims could be made extraordinarily giant and clamped in place to create shade even in direct daylight.
  • Shutter lag – The slight delay from the time you press the shutter button to the time the shutter truly opens. In DSLRs and mirrorless cameras, shutter lag is minimal and virtually unnoticeable. In smaller point-and-shoot cameras, the delay is extra pronounced (and may trigger you to overlook photographs of fast-moving topics).
  • Chromatic aberration – Colour fringing that may seem in areas of pictures the place darkish meets mild (e.g., the sting of a constructing in opposition to the sky). CA is correctable to an excellent diploma utilizing Photoshop, Lightroom, and most different enhancing software program.
  • Rear-curtain sync – Rear-curtain sync fires the flash on the finish of an publicity. By default, most cameras are set to front-curtain sync (i.e., if the flash fires, it does so at first of the publicity). When capturing a shifting topic, front-curtain sync will put any movement blur in entrance of the topic, whereas rear-curtain sync will place the blur behind the topic. Neither is fallacious; it is determined by the impact you’re after.
  • Camera shake – When a digicam strikes throughout an publicity and creates blur.
  • Lens flare – Stray mild that creates haze, circles, or different artifacts in a picture. Some photographers truly want lens flare; they place their cameras to create flare and use it as a compositional ingredient.
  • Kelvin – Absolutely the measurement of colour temperature. Decrease numbers characterize hotter colours like orange (tungsten mild), whereas the upper numbers are cooler (blues). Play with the colour temperature to create completely different results.
  • ND filter – Stands for impartial density filter. It’s a filter designed to go in entrance of the lens to dam out a number of the mild coming into the digicam. Typically utilized by panorama photographers to get gradual shutter speeds when photographing waterfalls and streams in full daylight.
  • Panning – The act of utilizing a gradual shutter pace and shifting the digicam in the identical path as a shifting topic. Creates an inventive, blurred background.
  • Stopping down – Closing down the aperture to a smaller opening (e.g., going from f/5.6 to f/8).
  • TTL and ETTL – TTL stands for by the lens; it refers back to the metering system in regard to flash publicity. The flash emits mild till it’s turned off by the digicam sensor. ETTL stands for evaluative through-the-lens metering. It fires a “preflash” to judge and calculate for misplaced mild, then compensates and fires the primary flash. It occurs so quick you don’t see two flashes.
  • Photog – Quick for “photographer.” One thing execs usually name one another.
  • Glass – A lens. As in, “What glass do you personal?”
  • Golden hour – Additionally known as “magic hour.” That is the hour or two proper earlier than sundown and proper after dawn. The solar is low on the horizon, and it’s an optimum time for pictures.
  • Spray and pray – Shoot as many pictures as doable whereas praying you get one thing good.
  • Blown out – A picture with no particulars within the white areas.
  • Clipped – Both blown out areas (above) or darkish, detailless shadows.
  • Grip-and-grin – A fast photoshoot at an occasion or a setup with two individuals shaking arms. Most portrait and occasion photographers must shoot these sooner or later of their careers.
  • Selfie – A self-portrait.
  • SOOC – Straight out of digicam; a picture with no post-processing.
  • Mud bunnies – Darkish spots that seem on a picture brought on by bits of mud on the digital sensor.
  • Pixel peeper – Somebody who spends an excessive amount of time taking a look at pictures magnified in Photoshop.
  • Nifty fifty – A 50mm prime lens. Nice to have!
  • ACR – Adobe Digital camera Uncooked. The enhancing software program that’s packaged alongside Photoshop.
  • Flash and drag – The strategy of utilizing a gradual shutter pace mixed with flash to seize extra of the ambient mild in proportion to the flash.
  • Large open – Utilizing your lens with the aperture at its widest setting (f/1.8, for instance).

Images terminology: remaining phrases

Whew! That was a lengthy listing. Should you made it this far, congratulations; you know the way to make use of pictures phrases like a professional.

So get on the market and begin working towards your pictures terminology. Remember to have a lot of enjoyable!

Now over to you:

What pictures phrases do you battle with? Do you might have any extra phrases I ought to add to this listing? Share your ideas within the feedback beneath!

The submit Photography Terminology: A Glossary of 69 Essential Photographic Terms appeared first on Digital Photography School. It was authored by Darlene Hildebrandt.

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